Everything vibrates. The stuff that makes up atoms vibrates; atoms vibrate; the floor you walk on vibrates; the refrigerator vibrates as the motor turns on. Vibration is movement back and forth; it may be rhythmic or random; it’s caused by a movement and ends when the force of the initiating movement ends. What we experience as sound is the vibration of air molecules at different speeds starting a pattern of vibrations in the ear drum that a complicated system of receiving mechanisms repeat to different nerve endings and send as patterns to the brain.
Vibration and oscillation are often used interchangeably. Generally, oscillation is measured and specific, while vibration is more random.
Resonance occurs not in objects, but in systems. It’s the tendency of vibrations (or oscillations) among members of a system to increase in frequency. For example, if we set a vibrating tuning fork next to another tuning fork the second will start to vibrate in resonance. In 1940, part of the Tacoma Narrows bridge started to vibrate and the resonance continued to increase until the whole bridge was oscillating and tore itself to pieces (there are pictures of the once-flat roadway looking like a sine wave!). Tesla, the inventor of modern electrical systems and radios, used to love to set up resonant frequencies and once created the equivalent of a significant earthquake in New York City by setting a large iron rod humming in his lab.